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Phnom Penh’s S21 Tuol Sleng Museum

s21

Innocent victims of Toul Sleng aka S21  | Phnom Penh’s  S21 Tuol Sleng Museum

When I emerged, I didn’t want to speak.

It was the most ghastly place in of all Cambodia… where unimaginable acts of torture and bloodshed began.

Country man killing country man. Death found no distinction between young or old, man or woman.

Even worse, it took place in a school.

The largest torture chamber in Cambodian history

Cambodia has a very solemn and tragic side to it’s lovely Khmer face. The Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum (aka Security Prison 21 or S21) was the notorious genocide camp from  1975-1979, where prisoners (mostly innocent victims) of the Khmer Rouge were interrogated, tortured and killed.

The museum grounds still shield the three dreadful school buildings, which were once converted into horrific persecution chambers of Pot Pol’s regime. Pot Pol, a Maoist revolutionary led the Khmer Rouge from 1968 until his death in 1998. He took over Cambodia in 1975 and  attempted to create an agrarian-based Communist society, pushing city dwelling families to the countryside to farm. Anyone who opposed this was seen as a traitor. The law:

“No Buddhism, money or education.”

 

Thus,  high class intellectuals, businessmen, Buddhists and foreigners were often captured and brought to this security prison to be tortured and then executed.

Pol’s rule lasted from 1975-1979 and within that time approximately two million Khmer and foreign lives were lost to starvation, gross maltreatment, murder and hard labor.

 

s21 grounds

s21 grounds is a school yard

“Building A” housed 20 rooms used to interrogate high officials. They were chained to the bed, reduced to torture tactics and starvation.

Building B & C held rooms converted into small isolated cells or mass detention facilities.

s21 prison cells

Prison cells

 The young faces of the Khmer Rouge

Although the Khmer Rouge was led by Pol, Tuol Sleng (or S21) was orchestrated under the hand of a man name ‘Dutch’. As the right hand of Pol, Dutch doled out orders to the Khmer Rouge soldiers to use torture tactics to deal with their captives.

Horrifically, the soldiers were comprised mostly of teens and young adults, who were separated from their families and indoctrinated into the Rouge.  It’s chilling to stare into the photographed faces of these soldiers, to see them possess a peaceful confidence and raw innocence, upon initiation into this killing army. After entering however, they were taught cruel and barbarous tactics and were made to turn in friends and family.  It was at their hands that thousands suffered unimaginable atrocities.

 

khmer rouge teens

Khmer Rouge soldiers were mostly boys and girls in their teens.

The prisoners of Tuol Sleng/S21

But more silencing in the museum, are the photographs of the prisoners, whose looks of confusion, fear, shock, betrayal, sadness,.. tell of a tragic tale of undeserved  bloodshed.

Once you entered as a prisoner, you never left.

…And Dutch and the Khmer Rouge made certain of this. Various abusive tactics were used to grill prisoners and to get them to admit to crimes or offenses: holding heads underwater, kniving, electric shock treatments, suffocation with plastic bags, beatings, etc… Prisoners’ were tagged, their testimonies were transcribed, archived and their stay was documented until death. Each body had to be accounted for to ensure than none had escaped. The fear of rebellion was so great, that once a family member was an S21 captive, the entire family was captured and also exterminated. This form of genocide was to prevent family members from seeking revenge against the Pol’s revolution in the future.

Prisoners were held for 2-3 months until they were killed. Captives weren’t allowed to talk to each other or the guards and were given only four spoons of rice, twice a day and stayed in unhygenic conditions, receiving a bath hosing only 4 times a week.

* [More detailed information from wikipedia here]

 

documented photos

cambodian victimsThousands of documented photos of S21 prisoners

cambodian victims

prisoners of S21

photo of a S21 victim; a child.

 

Where does the Killing Fields come in?

Only after the body count grew beyond maximum capacity at S21, the persecuted were then taken to the Killing Fields for execution and mass burial.

Seeing wall-to-wall displays of S21’s prisoners (men, women and children), documented deaths and paintings of atrocities makes this a sorrowful tomb.  Of the 14000 that entered S21, only 7 people survived.

genocide

paintings of torturePaintings of torture. The artist was one of 4 people that made it out of the camp alive.

skulls

skulls

skulls

 

Visiting it will certainly jolt you harder than a visit to the Killing Fields; it’ll leave you winded for hours.

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Getting to S21:

A motordop or tuk-tuk drive is easily taken to s21 which is south of downtown. If you have the time, walking is also feasible but it stands a distance from the Royal Palace and National Museum along PP’s tourist coastline.  The Killing Fields however, are on the outskirts of Phnom Phen and can be reached by taxi/driver or tour. There’s a one day budget tour from Capitol Guesthouse including these two sites as well as a few others.

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Website Information:

Tuol Sleng or S21 (website here)

The Killing Fields Museum (site here)

 

Additionally interesting resources to learn more about this genocidal history :

Time article “A brief history of the Khmer Rouge” (here)

Book:” First They Killed My Father: A Daughter of Cambodia Remembers” by Luong Ung   Purchase it in Cambodia for the best price.

 

 

13 Comments

  1. So sad. When I look at the grounds, it looks like it must have been a beautiful school once.

    Thanks for sharing.

  2. Jason Webb says:

    You were not alone in your empty feeling after walking from the grounds of S21 Christine. My visit was a few years back now, but I distinctly remember that same hollow feeling.

    I had read about the atrocities that took place there, but like most things in life. You need to physically experience a place to get the full impact.

    • @Jason: Definitely! Visiting that museum was a solemn kick in the stomach but I certainly recommend people go. It added a dimension to Khmer history & beauty that I otherwise, might have taken for granted.

  3. This was so painfully sad to read and I can’t imagine what you went through seeing all of this in person. It’s incredible what some human beings (if they should even be called that) are capable of. Thanks for sharing such a moving post.

    • @Mary: Thanks Mary. Guess when it comes to ignorance, all human beings are capable of that on some level. Mostly I felt bad for Khmer history and their people who are basically, very warm and happy people living a simple life based around family (vs ambition). I think travelers should visit that museum; to appreciate what Cambodia has weathered and recovered from.

  4. Gray says:

    My God. How does evil like that go unchecked for so long? You’d think the “good people of the world” would see this stuff happening and put a stop to it. Where was the UN when all this was happening???

    • @Gray: You know, I don’t know what happened that the world lost sight of Cambodia around that period. Maybe it was too near the close of the Vietnam War? But yeah, pretty sad and horrific.

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